The objective of the present study was to formulate hydrodynamically balanced systems (HBSs) of theophylline as single unit capsules. They were formulated by physical blending of theophylline with hydroxypropyl methyl cellu-lose, polyethylene oxide, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, ethyl cellulose, liquid paraffin, and lactose in different ratios. These theophylline HBS capsules were evaluated for weight uniformity, drug content uniformity, in vitro floating behavior and drug release in simulated gastric fluids (pH 1.2). All these formulated HBS capsules containing theophylline were floated well over 6 hours with no floating lag time, and also showed sustained in vitro drug release in simulated gas-tric fluid over 6 hours. The theophylline release from these capsules was more sustained with the addition of release modifiers (ethyl cellulose and liquid paraffin). The drug release pattern from these capsules was correlated well with first order model (F-1 to F-5) and Korsmeyer-Peppas model (F-6 and F-7) with the non-Fickian (anomalous) diffusion mechanism. These experimental results clearly indicated that these theophylline HBS capsules were able to remain buoyant in the gastric juice for longer period, which may improve oral bioavailability of theophylline.