Heart failure is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Endothelial dysfunction, considered as the primum movens of the atherosclerotic process, is both a marker and maker of heart failure. In this complex clinical scenario, in the last decades inflammation played a pivotal role as the common pathogenetic factor for the appearance and progression of cardio metabolic diseases.
The aim of this narrative review is to examine original articles and reviews published over the past 20 years, focused on the link between inflammation and heart failure, with a particular focus on endothelial dysfunction. The articles and reviews have been searched through PubMed using the following search terms (or combination of terms): “Heart failure,” “endothelium or endothelial dysfunction,” “oxidative stress,” “inflammation,” “atherosclerosis,” “NLRP3 inflammasome,” “Interleukin-1” and “treatment.” Only English-language papers were included in the literature search. Additional papers found in the reference list of the retrieved articles were also considered.