Job Satisfaction Among Community Pharmacy Professionals in Harar City, Eastern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Citation: Mohammed AS, Woldekidan NA, Bojia HY. Job Satisfaction Among Community Pharmacy Professionals in Harar City, Eastern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study. J Basic Clin Pharma 2019;10:27-31.
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Purpose: Job satisfaction is an important psychological variable in determining the success of any organization. Community pharmacists are healthcare professionals that play a critical role in determining the effectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability of health care systems. Thus, the study assessed levels of job satisfaction and associated factors among community pharmacists working in community drug retail outlets in Harar city, Eastern Ethiopia.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among community pharmacists in Harar city. A self-administered questionnaire on job satisfaction of community pharmacists was used. Binary logistic regression was done to predict the determinants of job satisfaction. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were also computed along with corresponding p-value (p<0.05).
Results: Out of 81 community pharmacists involved in study, 73 responded to the questionnaires appropriately and completely, which makes the response rate of 90.12%. Pharmacy professionals who had more than 10 year experience were more likely to have job satisfaction compared to those who had less than five year experience (AOR=2.32, 95% CI: 1.7-11.85). The odd of satisfaction were 3.42 times higher among full times employees than their counterpart, partial time workers (AOR=3.42, 95%CI: 1.608-7.240). From respondents, more than average (58.9%) of them claimed to have medium job stress.
Conclusion: The current study revealed that more than average of respondents was satisfied with their current job. Respondents who had more than 10 year experience were more likely to have job satisfaction compared to those who had less than five year experience. Full time pharmacy professionals were more likely to better work satisfaction level compared to part-time employees.
Job satisfaction, community pharmacists, factors of job satisfaction, Harar
Community pharmacists are healthcare professionals essential to enhance patient care and promote implementation of sustainable health to the patient, mainly attributed to ease to access these health professionals. Despite having variety of duties, such as running the business, involving in marketing, financing, logistics, human resource management, and information management, the professional commitment of a community pharmacist is to provide the required pharmaceutical care to the patients in their respective community drug retail outlets.
Job satisfaction is defined as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences. It is also the way employees feel about their job and different aspects of their jobs. [3,4] Job satisfaction directly related with motivation and performance. [5,6] Moreover, it has been related with productivity, turnover, burnout, mental and physical health and general life satisfaction.[7,8] Thus, when there is job dissatisfaction as a consequence of all aspect of particular work, my resulted in lack of motivation and associated low performance in work, especially for professionals like pharmacists. Incorrectly filling prescriptions, not detecting drug interactions and poor patient counselling could occur as a consequence of job dissatisfaction which can affect health care efficiency and quality. Dissatisfaction may also affect the way that patients view the pharmacist and patients may then inclined to limit their interactions with the Pharmacists. Community pharmacists play an important role in reducing medication related problems and improving patient’s overall health status through providing different services including patient counselling, so it is vital to understand what inspires them and to what level they are satisfied by their job, for provision of efficient and quality health care.[10-12] Several variables have been identified to influence the way a person feels about its job. They include payment, information technologies challenges, continuing pharmacy education, working environment, safety, co-workers, promotion, supervision, attitudes about the job characteristics, compensation and benefits, status, social security, advancement opportunities, respect and treatment by management, creating an environment that encourages employee’s involvement and manages stress in the workplace. Job dissatisfaction could be a negative outcome of any of these factors. Job satisfaction is direct reflection of commitment. If pharmacists committed more, they could be more satisfied to their current job. A cross sectional study conducted in north Ireland assessed job satisfaction and stress among all community and hospital pharmacist with 766 respondent (36%) with 571 of them are community pharmacists revealed 57% of them are satisfied with their job „most of the time with 5% of them replayed they were never or rarely satisfied with their job. The study also found that stress level is higher among community pharmacists compared to hospital pharmacists, but it was found difficult to correlate with job satisfaction.  Efficient and quality health care system needs sufficient number of skilled, motivated, and supportive health workers. Thus, job satisfaction is requirement for effective functioning of health professional. Pharmacists had low levels of satisfaction in three particular areas; skills utilization, professional development and income according to study report from Saudi Arabia. Pharmacies are run only by a pharmacist (with qualification of a university degree or above), drug store run by druggist (with qualification of diploma in pharmacy) and rural drug vendor run by health assistant. In Ethiopia there are more than 650 community pharmacists, which are divided into pharmacy, drug store and rural drug vendors based on the type of medications they are meant to dispense and the qualification of dispensers. Researches showed that pharmacists (especially community pharmacists) are the most accessible health care professionals and their major role is compounding and dispensing of medicines. Based on studies in Ethiopia, more than half of study participants depicted to have had overall job satisfaction. Older pharmacists (age >40 years) reported a higher level of satisfaction for all items than the other lower aged group pharmacists in nationwide study. Among respondents 68% of them satisfied with their job while 59% of pharmacists were satisfied with their working position and 63% of them were satisfied with the working environment according to study from southwest Ethiopia.  Another similar study from northern Ethiopia revealed that 50.9% of respondents were strongly agreed that they have good overall satisfaction; (54.5%) of the respondents believe that their job have good future and 55.6% of them satisfied with working environment.
There is no sufficient evidence based data regarding job satisfaction of community pharmacists in Ethiopia. Therefore, assessing job satisfaction of community pharmacists in Harar could be an additional input in implementation of community pharmacy related program in the country. Thus, the aim of this study was assessing job satisfaction and associated factor among community pharmacists in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia.
Methodology: Study area and period
The study was conducted in all community drug retail outlets (CDROs) in Harar city. Harar city is the capital of Harari regional state, about 526 km away in Eastern direction from Addis Ababa, which is the capital city of Ethiopia. The city has two government and two private hospitals, a number of health centers and private clinics, and 61 medication retail outlets (16 pharmacies and 45 drug stores). Harar is one of the ancient and densely populated cities in Ethiopian and the city had an estimated population of 183,344. The study was conducted from 6 March to 6 June 2018.
This was a cross-sectional survey conducted on facility-based census to assess job satisfaction of Community Pharmacy Professionals in Harar city, Eastern Ethiopia.
Study population and sampling
The source population was all pharmacy professional work in medication retail outlets of community pharmacy and those pharmacy professionals working in private retail outlets and available during data collection period were considered as study population. Working in medication retail outlet during data collection period was used as inclusion criteria. There are 61 private medication retail outlets in Harar and approximately around 90 pharmacy professionals are working in private medication retail outlets. Among those, only 81 of them were consented to participate in this study.
Socio demographic and work profiles variables, including age and sex of respondents, educational level, working hours, year of experience, and type of employment were the independent variables while job satisfaction pharmacy professional was outcome variable of this study.
Data collection was done through self-administered questionnaires to assess job satisfaction of community pharmacists and associated factors. The questions were designed to have two sections; the first section consists of socio demographic and work profile of study participants such as; average working hour per day, overall job stress level and salary per month. The other section was contained questions to determine the level of satisfaction of community pharmacists and were assessed using 5-point Likert scale (1=strongly agree to 5=strongly disagree). The total satisfaction score which ranged from 12-60 was used to classify satisfaction level into satisfied (36-60) and unsatisfied which is score of less than the average score (12-35). Negatively worded questions were reverse scored during the analysis, so that higher scores reflected more satisfaction to current job. The pre-test was done on 5 pharmacies professional that were not included in final data analysis and necessary correction was made depend on pretest result. The data collection was made by three graduating pharmacy students. The questionnaire was collected three days after date of distribution.
After response from study participants were collected, the data were manually entered into Statistical Package for Social Studies (SPSS) version 21.0. A descriptive analysis was done through calculating frequency, mean, and Standard deviations. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was done to predict the determinants of job satisfaction among community pharmacists. P-value of 0.05, at 95% CI was taken as cut off point for statistical significance.
Ethical clearance was secured from the University of Gondar, College of Medicine and Health Science, School of Pharmacy. In this research study, issues relating to the ethical conduct of research such as informed consent, confidentiality, and privacy was upheld. Respondents were given full information on the purpose and objectives of the study to got honest consent from them.
Out of 81 community pharmacists involved in study, 73 responded to the questionnaires appropriately and completely, which makes the response rate of 90.12%. More than half (54.8%) of health professional were aged between 20-30, making mean age of 31.89 year with standard deviation of 9.88 and having degree in level of qualification 41(54.8%). Majority of respondents were males 48(65.8%) and 54(74%) of them were full time employees [Table 1].
|Variables Categories Frequency (%)|
|Level of education||Diploma||32(45.2%)|
|Year of experience||<5||28(38.4%)|
|Type of retail outlet||Pharmacy||32(43.8%)|
|Type of employment||Full time||54(74%)|
Table 1: Socio-demographic and work profile of study participants, Harar city, eastern Ethiopia
Job satisfaction level of pharmacy professionals
From respondents, majority (80.9%) of them believed that their job have good future (strongly agreed=28.8%, agreed=52.1%) and 52.1% of the community pharmacists believed that they receiving good salary for the job and the survey also revealed that 40 (54.8%) of all participants have had good overall satisfaction for the job [Table 2]. From respondents, more than average (58.9%) of them claimed to have medium job stress [Figure 1].
|Variables||Strongly disagree (%)||Disagree (%)||Neutral (%)||Agree (%)||Strongly agree (%)|
|I believe the job have good future||3(4.1%)||3(4.1%)||8(11%)||38(52.1%)||21(28.8%)|
|Good recognition from the society||1(1.4%)||1(1.4%)||11(15.1%)||38(52.1%)||22(30.1%)|
|Feeling of accomplishment from the job||1(1.4%)||5(6.8%)||11(15.1%)||46(63%)||10(13.7)|
|Freedom to choose own working method||2(2.7%)||2(2.7%)||12(16.4%)||40(54.8%)||17(23.3%)|
|Good working environment||2(2.7%)||5(6.8%)||22(30.1%)||34(46.6%)||10(13.7%)|
|Chance of professional development||3(4.1%)||6(8.2%)||21(28.8%)||34(46.6%)||9(12.3%)|
|Good staff interaction||0((0%)||2(2.7%)||7(9.6%)||35(47.9%)||29(39.7%)|
|Benefit for the society||4(5.5%)||2(2.7%)||10(13.7%)||41(56.2%)||16(21.9%)|
|Good working position||0(0%)||6(8.2%)||12(16.4%)||42(57.5%)||13(17.8%)|
|Opportunity to choose personal abilities||1(1.4%)||4(5.5%)||13(17.8%)||39(53.4%)||16(21.9%)|
Table 2: Level of job satisfaction among community pharmacists in Harar city, eastern Ethiopia. 2018
Job satisfaction and associated factors
Variables that were significantly associated with satisfaction level in the bivariate analysis were further examined in multivariable logistic regression. Accordingly, experience and type of employment were the factors that significantly associated with satisfaction of pharmacy professional with their current job. Respondents who had more than 10 year experience were more likely to have job satisfaction compared to those who had less than five year experience (AOR=2.32, 95% CI: 1.7- 11.85). The odd of satisfaction were 3.42 times higher among full times employees than their counterpart, partial time workers (AOR=3.42, 95% CI: 1.608-7.24) [Table 3].
|Variables Satisfaction||Crude odd ratio (95% CI)||Adjusted odd ratio (95% CI)|
|Satisfied (40)||Unsatisfied (33|
|Type of employment
Table 3: Predictors of pharmacy professionals job satisfaction in Harar city
Job satisfaction has been described as pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences. It is also the overall feeling and perception employees have about their work.[3,4] It is an important psychological variable in determining the success of one organization. Community pharmacists are healthcare professionals that play a critical role in determining the effectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability of health care systems. So it is vital to understand what inspires them and to what level they are satisfied by their job, for provision of efficient and quality health care.[24,25] In this study, Majority of respondents were male. This was comparable to that of a study carried out among hospital pharmacists by Olson and Lawson (59.3%) and another similar study reported from Nigeria (59.5%). The mean age of participants was 31.89 year with standard deviation of 9.88. This was comparable with previous studies in Ethiopia: The mean age of the participants was 32.62 years with SD of 8.829 in mekelle, northern Ethiopia. Similarly, another nationwide study which assessed workforce of pharmacists in Ethiopia, which reported that the mean age of the pharmacists was 30.2 with standard deviation of 8.3. This could be due to the reason that both studies were conducted in the same country. In current study, more than half (54.8%) of study participants were satisfied with their professional job. This was comparable to study report from Ireland that depicted that 57% of community pharmacists were satisfied with their current job „most of the time. Nevertheless, it was lower than study result obtained from previous study from Mekelle, where 67.3% of respondents were satisfied with their professional job. According to mekelle study, More than two-thirds (69.1%) of the respondents strongly agreed with the statement that job stress is low in drug retail outlets. This was far higher than current study in which only 28.8% of study participants claimed to have low job stress. This might be due to difference in number of pharmacy professionals in each drug retail outlets between the two study areas. In this study, Respondents who had more than 10 year experience were about 2 times more likely to have job satisfaction compared to those who had less than five year experience(AOR=2.32, 95% CI: 1.7-11.85). This was in agreement with previous study which assessed workforce of pharmacists in Ethiopia, which Revealed that more experienced pharmacists (>10 years of professional work experience) who scored a consistently higher mean on all work satisfaction items than less experienced pharmacists. This could be due to better understanding of pharmacy profession, which is a diverse and rewarding career, of professionals with more experience in the sector. The odd of satisfaction were 3.42 times higher among full times employees than their counterpart, partial time workers (AOR=3.42, CI: 1.608-7.240). This is corroborated by previous study finding from northern part of the country that revealed type of employment as factor that determines job satisfaction of pharmacy professionals. This might be due to difference in interest. Those full time employees might have great interest toward their professional practice that keeps themselves busy most of time.
Strength and limitation of the study
The strength of the study is that since there is only few studies done on job satisfaction of community pharmacists, the result of this study could be used as a reference for other studies on this topic. The study has some limitations that should be considered while interpreting the results, the study being cross sectional and use of self-reported survey that may subject to under reporting of the result.
The current study revealed that more than average of respondents was satisfied with their current job. Respondents who had more than 10 year experience were more likely to have job satisfaction compared to those who had less than five year experience. Full time pharmacy professionals were more likely to have more work satisfaction level compared to part-time employees. Only about half of the community pharmacists believe that they receiving good salary for the job. From respondents, more than average of them claimed to have medium job stress. Therefore based on findings of this study, interventions should be made to further improve job satisfaction to a high level among community pharmacists in Harar, Ethiopia. Moreover, the study could be a stepping stone for those experts who want to carry out further investigation on job satisfaction among pharmacists who work in other sectors of pharmacy in Ethiopia, such as community pharmacies, academia, regulatory agencies and industries.
List of abbreviations
EPA: Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Association; CDROs: Community Drug Retail Outlets; CI: Confidence Interval; SPSS: Statistical Packages for Social Sciences.
Ethical clearance was secured from the University of Gondar, College of Medicine and Health Science, School of Pharmacy. In this research study, issues related to the ethical conduct of research such as informed consent, confidentiality, privacy were upheld. Respondents were given full information on the purpose and objectives of the study to get honesty consent from them.
Consent for publication
Availability of data and materials
Questionnaire assess job satisfaction of pharmacy professionals and associated factors.
The authors declare there is no competing interest.
All authors involved in the conceptualization of the study, data collection supervision and write up of the first draft of the manuscript as well as submission of the manuscript.
We are grateful to all of the participants of the study.
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