The objective of this study was to review published articles on the issues surrounding tight blood pressure control in hypertensive diabetics. Relevant medical subject headings (MeSH) terms and keywords to review scien- tific literatures were developed. These MeSH terms were used to generate MEDLINE searches that focused on English-language, peer-reviewed scientific literature. In reviewing the exceptionally large body of research literature in anti-hyperten- sion therapies in diabetic patients , the review focused on outcomes of importance to patients and effects of sufficient magnitude to warrant changes in medical practice (“patient oriented evidence that matters” [POEMs]). Patient-oriented outcomes include not only mortality but also other outcomes that affect patients’ lives and well-being. Studies of physiological end points (disease- oriented evidence [DOEs]) were used to address questions where POEMs were not available. Treatment of hypertension in diabetic patients provides dramatic beneficial out- comes. Target diastolic BP of < 80 mmHg appears optimal; and systolic targets of 130 mmHg or less are also reasonable. Studies that compare drug classes do not suggest obviously superior agents. However, it is reasonable to conclude that ACEIs, thiazide diuretics and angiotension II receptor blockers may be the preferred first-line agents for treatment of hypertension in diabetes. ACEIs, ARBs and low dose thiazide diuretics may be the first line treatments although other agents are usually necessary and goals may not be achieved even with three or four agents. Aggressive blood pressure control may be the most important factor in preventing adverse outcomes in hypertensive patients with diabetes.