Effects of Codeine Products
Received: 08-Sep-2020 Accepted Date: Sep 17, 2020 ; Published: 23-Sep-2020
Citation: Siva K. Effects of Codeine Products. J Basic Clin Pharma 2020;11:4-3.
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Codeine or 3-methylmorphine is the most commonly consumed opiate worldwide, widely used for its analgesic, antitussive and anti-diarrhoeal properties. Research shows that awareness of codeine’s abuse potential within problematic drug using networks is higher than in the general population, and that it has the potential to alleviate withdrawals from stronger opiates such as heroin. Reported forms of recreational use of intoxication include consumption of codeine cough syrups along with anti-nausea preparations such as promethazine and codeine crushed within caffeine laced drinks popular in the US, and in Thailand, the home production of ‘Kratom Cocktails’. In the US, codeine has been labeled “Hillbilly Heroin” with free base smoked on aluminum foil (like heroin “chasing the dragon”). Poly drug taking represents an additional confounding health consequences and drug outcomes for the recreational misuse of codeine.
Alcohol abuse is a pattern of drinking that result in harm to one’s health, interpersonal relationship or ability to work. According to Gelder alcohol abuse is linked with suicide. They stated that the risk of suicide is high in older men who have a history of drinking, as well as those suffering from depression. Certain manifestations of alcohol abuse include failure to fulfill responsibilities at work, school, or home; drinking in dangerous situations, including the operation of a motor vehicle; legal concerns association with alcohol use; and continued drinking despite problems that are caused or worsen by drinking. Alcohol abuse can lead to alcohol dependence.
The general effects of abuse or addiction to any drug can be devastating. The specific physical and psychological effects of drug abuse and addiction tend to vary based on the substance involved. Psychologically, intoxication with or withdrawal from a substance can cause everything from euphoria as with alcohol, ecstasy, or inhalant intoxication to paranoia with marijuana or steroid intoxication, to severe depression or suicidal thoughts with cocaine or amphetamine withdrawal. Oshikoya and Alli, stated that experimentation with drugs during adolescence (10-25 years) is common. At this age, they try so many new things. They use drugs for so many reasons, including curiosity, because it feels good, to reduce stress, or to feel grown up. They further argued that using alcohol and tobacco at a young age increase the risk of using other drugs later. It is commonly acknowledged that the youths are the pillars of every nation. They are the future leaders as such their wellbeing is of paramount importance to the stability of any nation. The strength and versatility of any society rest on its productive workforce which comprises mainly of youth. The surge in abuse of codeine products poses serious cause for concern in Northern Nigeria; and supporting data is scanty. This study seeks to contribute to the debate on drug abuse in Nigeria in view of the massive consumption of codeine products for non-medical purposes. The study will provide data for use by relevant drug regulatory agencies, doctor, psychiatric hospitals, government agencies and all stakeholders particularly in their decision-making processes. Similarly, it will serve as reference material to researchers and students interested in the issue of codeine and alcohol abuse in Nigeria.